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Thread: [Grammar] Verbs (動詞)

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    Re: Grammar: Verbs (動詞)

    much better ^^
    might i suggest adding a volitional and potential form of the verb? =}

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    Re: Grammar: Verbs (動詞)

    Yes I know I'm still working on it

    Aside from the tabs already there, I intend to add

    Volitional Form (意志形)
    Potential Form (可能形)
    Passive Form (受身形)
    Causative Form (使役形)
    Passive Causative Form (使役受身形)
    Intransitive and Transitive Verbs (自動詞・他動詞)
    Respectable Form (尊敬語・謙譲語)
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    Re: Grammar: Verbs (動詞)

    If you need help for a second post of your post in below this post, please let me know. I can re-number around.
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    Re: Grammar: Verbs (動詞)

    I remember tryng something like this (that is, a brief summary of the conjugations and what-not)
    needless to say, it was a mess. i'm sure it'll be very useful for those starting out, and as a refresher for those who already learned ^^

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    Re: Grammar: Verbs (動詞)

    Quote Originally Posted by ~dreamer~ View Post
    I remember tryng something like this (that is, a brief summary of the conjugations and what-not)
    needless to say, it was a mess. i'm sure it'll be very useful for those starting out, and as a refresher for those who already learned ^^
    I do realize that this alone won't have much meaning, one still has to be able to use the different form of verbs in sentences which is a whole new story about adverbs and conjunctions etc.

    But as a quick reference I hope this helps (they are my exam notes after all)

    Quote Originally Posted by Checkmate View Post
    sure, just post the post you want it to be, then notify me, and tell me which post should be renumbered into 2.
    Ok will do, thanks for the help! ^_^
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    Re: Grammar: Verbs (動詞)

    Ah that looks much better now! I'm assuming the gaps were from hidden divs or something similar?
    Unfortunately things still look weird once the tabs go on to the second row

    Multi-quote works fine, but the post number (in the top-right hand corner of posts) overlaps the multi-quote button, that's the bug.
    Things still work fine if I click on "Reply with Quote" for each post and copy them into Notepad or something though.
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    [Grammar] Verbs (動詞)




    Click for more:
    • Dictionary Form (辞書形)
    • Verb Stem (語幹)
    • Negative Form (否定形)
    • Te-Form (て形)
    • Ta-Form (た形)
    • Ba-Form (ば形)
    • Tense

     



    The Volitional Form of verbs is similar to Let's. 食べよう means Let's eat! Of course, there will be subtle differences in meaning depending on the context it is used in.

    Group I
    Dictionary Form Plain Form Polite Form Meaning
    買う (かう) 買おう (かおう) 買いましょう (かいましょう) let's buy
    待つ (まつ) 待とう (まとう) 待ちましょう (まちましょう) let's wait
    治る (なおる) 治ろう (なおろう) 治りましょう (なおおりましょう) let's heal
    読む (よむ) 読もう (よもう) 読みましょう (よみましょう) let's read
    運ぶ (はこぶ) 運ぼう (はこぼう) 運びましょう (はこびましょう) let's carry
    死ぬ (しぬ) 死のう (しのう) 死にましょう (しにましょう) let's die
    書く (かく) 書こう (かこう) 書きましょう (かきましょう) let's write
    泳ぐ (およぐ) 泳ごう (およごう) 泳ぎましょう (およぎましょう) let's swim
    話す (はなす) 話そう (はなそう) 話しましょう (はなしましょう) let's talk

    Some of the above examples do not make much sense (such as Let's die or Let's heal) but you should get the idea.
    To transform a Group I verb into its Volitional Form, change the -u hiragana at the end with the corresponding -o hiragana of the same column and add う at the end.

    探す → 探 + そ + う → 探そう


    For the Polite Form of Volitional Form verbs, starting with the Affirmative Form (Polite) of the verb, replace the す with しょう.

    探す → 探します(Polite Form) → 探しま + しょう → 探しましょう


    Group II
    Dictionary Form Plain Form Polite Form Meaning
    食べる (たべる) 食べよう (たべよう) 食べましょう (たべましょう) let's eat
    起きる (おきる) 起きよう (おきよう) 起きましょう (おきましょう) let's wake up

    Again, some verbs may seem weird in their Volitional Form.
    To change a Group II verb into its Volitional Form replace the る at the end with よう.

    食べる → 食べ + よう → 食べよう


    For its Polite Form, similar to Group I verbs, replace the す at the end of verbs with しょう.

    食べる → 食べます(Polite Form) → 食べま + しょう → 食べましょう


    Group III
    Dictionary Form Plain Form Polite Form Meaning
    する しよう しましょう let's do
    来る (くる) 来よう (こよう) 来ましょう (きましょう) let's come
    勉強する (べんきょうする) 勉強しよう (べんきょうしよう) 勉強しましょう (べんきょうしましょう) let's study
    持ってくる (もってくる) 持ってこよう (もってこよう) 持ってきましょう (もってきましょう) let's bring

    *Note the change in pronunciation.
     



    The Potential Form of verbs suggests a possibility or ability to do things. 読める would mean I can read.
    The Potential Form of verbs acts like Group II verbs (you might notice that they end with -eru) and therefore I shall not include the Polite Forms here. Refer to the Dictionary Form tab for more information.

    Group I
    Dictionary Form Potential Form Meaning
    買う (かう) 買える (かえる) (I) can buy
    待つ (まつ) 待てる (まてる) (I) can wait
    治る (なおる) 治れる (なおれる) (I) can heal
    読む (よむ) 読める (よめる) (I) can read
    運ぶ (はこぶ) 運べる (はこべる) (I) can carry
    死ぬ (しぬ) 死ねる (しねる) (I) can die
    書く (かく) 書ける (かける) (I) can write
    泳ぐ (およぐ) 泳げる (およげる) (I) can swim
    話す (はなす) 話せる (はなせる) (I) can speak

    To transform Group I verbs into their Potential Form, replace the end -u hiragana with the corresponding -e hiragana of the same column and add る to the end.

    探す → 探 + せ + る → 探せる


    Group II
    Dictionary Form Potential Form Meaning
    食べる (たべる) 食べられる (たべられる) (I) can eat
    起きる (おきる) 起きられる (おきられる) (I) can wake up

    To transform Group II verbs into their Potential Form, replace the る at the end with られる (try rolling that on your tongue).

    食べる → 食べ + られる → 食べられる


    Group III
    Dictionary Form Potential Form Meaning
    する 出来る (できる) (I) can
    来る (くる) 来られる (こられる) (I) can come
    勉強する (べんきょうする) 勉強できる (べんきょうできる) (I) can study
    持ってくる (もってくる) 持ってこられる (もってこられる) (I) can bring

    *Note the pronunciation and kanji changes
     



    The Passive Form of verbs is similar to how it is in English. The subject is at the receiving end of the action.
    Active: Tom ate me → ジョンは私を食べた
    Passive: I was eaten by Tom → 私はジョンに食べられた

    As with the Potential Form of verbs, the Passive Form of verbs acts like Group II verbs.
    It may be easy to to confuse the Potential Form and the Causative Form, as they sound very similar.
    An easy way to remember the Potential Form is to remember that of the verb する, which is される. You might notice that all the verbs in their Potential Forms end with -areru. Therefore, try to get the verb to end with -areru when changing it into its Potential Form.

    Group I
    Dictionary Form Passive Form
    買う (かう) 買われる (かわれる)
    待つ (まつ) 待たれる (またれる)
    治る (なおる) 治られる (なおられる)
    読む (よむ) 読まれる (よまれる)
    運ぶ (はこぶ) 運ばれる (はこばれる)
    死ぬ (しぬ) 死なれる (しなれる)
    書く (かく) 書かれる (かかれる)
    泳ぐ (およぐ) 泳がれる (およがれる)
    話す (はなす) 話される (はなされる)

    To change a Group I verb to its Passive Form, replace the end -u hiragana with the corresponding -a hiragana of the same column and add れる.

    書く → 書 + か + れる → 書かれる


    Group II
    Dictionary Form Passive Form
    食べる (たべる) 食べられる (たべられる)
    起きる (おきる) 起きられる (おきられる)

    Similar to the Potential Form of Group II verbs, replace the る at the end of the Dictionary Form with られる to obtain its Passive Form.
    *Do note confuse these with the Potential Form of verbs. Look at the context the verb is used in.

    食べる → 食べ + られる → 食べられる


    Group III
    Dictionary Form Passive Form
    する される
    来る (くる) 来られる (こられる)

    *Note the difference in pronunciation.
     



    As it name implies, the Causative Form of a verb indicates that the subject made someone/something do something.
    My girlfriend made me wait → 彼女は私を待たせた

    The Causative Form may also be used to seek permission.
    Please let me leave → 帰らせてください

    The Causative Form of verbs act like Group II verbs as well.
    You may notice that the Causative Form of verbs sound similar to the Passive Form of verbs. Similar to remembering the Passive Form, you can keep the Causative Form of the verb する, させる, in your head to differentiate between the two Forms. Causative Forms end with -aseru.

    Group I
    Dictionary Form Causative Form
    買う (かう) 買わせる (かわせる)
    待つ (まつ) 待たせる (またせる)
    治る (なおる) 治らせる (なおらせる)
    読む (よむ) 読ませる (よませる)
    運ぶ (はこぶ) 運ばせる (はこばせる)
    死ぬ (しぬ) 死なせる (しなせる)
    書く (かく) 書かせる (かかせる)
    泳ぐ (およぐ) 泳がせる (およがせる)
    話す (はなす) 話させる (はなさせる)

    To change a Group I verb to its Causative Form, replace the end -u hiragana with the corresponding -a hiragana of the same column and add せる.

    書く → 書 + か + せる → 書かせる


    Group II
    Dictionary Form Causative Form
    食べる (たべる) 食べさせる (たべさせる)

    While similar to the Passive Form of Group II verbs, replace the る at the end of the Dictionary Form with させる instead to obtain its Causative Form.

    食べる → 食べ + させる → 食べさせる


    Group III
    Dictionary Form Causative Form
    する させる
    来る (くる) 来らせる (こらせる)

    *Note the difference in pronunciation.
     



    The Passive Causative Form of a verb is simply the Passive Form of the Causative Form of a verb.
    Hence, to obtain the Passive Causative Form of verbs, apply the rules for Passive Form to the Causative Form of a verb. Remember, you would treat the Causative Form of a verb as a Group II verb. However, there is an exception to Group I Passive Causative verbs, where it is "shortened". This does not apply to Group II or III verbs.

    Group I
    Dictionary Form Passive Causative Form
    買う (かう) 買わされる (かわされる)
    待つ (まつ) 待たされる (またされる)
    治る (なおる) 治らされる (なおらされる)
    読む (よむ) 読まされる (よまされる)
    運ぶ (はこぶ) 運ばされる (はこばされる)
    死ぬ (しぬ) 死なされる (しなされる)
    書く (かく) 書かされる (かかされる)
    泳ぐ (およぐ) 泳がされる (およがされる)
    話す (はなす) 話させられる (はなさせられる)

    To change a Group I verb to its Passive Causative Form, first change the verb into its Causative Form, then into its Passive Form, and finally "shorten" it by replacing the せら with さ.
    *Do not "shorten" the verb if it ends with -su because that will become even more of a mouthful.


    書く → 書 + か + せる → 書かせる
    書かせる → 書かせ + られる → 書かせられる
    書かせられる → 書かせられる → 書かれる

    話す → 話 + さ + せる → 話させる
    話させる → 話させ + られる → 話させられる
    話させられる → 話させられる → 話される (Do not do this!)


    Group II
    Dictionary Form Passive Causative Form
    食べる (たべる) 食べさせられる (たべさせられる)

    To change a Group II verb into its Passive Causative Form, first change it into its Causative Form then change its Causative Form into its Passive Form (hence Passive Causative Form).


    食べる → 食べ + させる → 食べさせる
    食べさせる → 食べさせ + られる → 食べさせられる


    Group III
    Dictionary Form Passive Causative Form
    する させられる
    来る (くる) 来させられる (こさせられる)

    *Note the difference in pronunciation.
     



    Click for more
    • Transitive and Intransitive Verbs (他動詞・自動詞)
    • Respectable Form (敬語)

     



    Hiragana Table (From anndundon.com):



    *Note: The hiragana ki is き and sa さ in this font.

      Spoiler: UPDATE 01/06/2014: 
    I will no longer be including an English translation as meanings may change according to context and do not always remain the same. I will however still continue to provide simplified examples of when a verb form may be used.
    Last edited by pichu655889; June 1st, 2014 at 04:30 PM.
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