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Thread: [Grammar] Verbs (動詞)

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    [Grammar] Verbs (動詞)

    Hello! I'm studying for a Japanese exam next year and I thought, why not share my notes with everyone?
    I'm sure there are a thousand more similar guides out there on the internet but hey, it doesn't hurt to add one more!
    Do note, however, that these are the notes of a student and may not be entirely accurate in terms of grammatical terms used (Present tense, Past tense that kind of thing) and may contain inaccuracies/misconceptions. If you spot any mistakes feel free to tell me and I hope that these would be helpful to someone!

    I intend to add and edit slowly over time as I add on to my notes.


    This can be thought of as the basic form of verbs. Verbs are split into 3 groups: Group I, Group II and Group III.

    Group I
    Dictionary Form/Plain Form Affirmative Form (Polite) Meaning
    買う (かう) 買います (かいます) buy
    待つ (まつ) 待ちます (まちます) wait
    治る (なおる) 治ります (なおります) heal
    読む (よむ) 読みます (よみます) read
    運ぶ (はこぶ) 運びます (はこびます) carry
    死ぬ (しぬ) 死にます (しにます) die
    書く (かく) 書きます (かきます) write
    泳ぐ (およぐ) 泳ぎます (およぎます) swim
    話す (はなす) 話します (はなします) speak

    To transform Group I verbs from their Dictionary Form to their Polite Form, replace the -u hiragana at the end of the verb with the -i hiragana of the same column (see hiragana table below), and add ます after that.

    買う → 買 + い + ます → 買います



    Group II
    Dictionary Form Affirmative Form (Polite) Meaning
    食べる (たべる) 食べます (たべます) eat
    起きる (おきる) 起きます (おきます) wake up

    Verbs are generally in Group II if they end with -iru or -eru.
    *However, there are exceptions, such as the verb 帰る (かえる), which ends with -eru but is a Group I verb: 帰る (かえる) → 帰ります (かえります).

    To change a Group II verb into its Polite Form, simply replace the る at the end of the verb with ます.

    食べる → 食べ + ます → 食べます


    Group III
    Dictionary Form Affirmative Form (Polite) Meaning
    する します do
    来る (くる) 来ます (きます) come
    勉強する (べんきょうする) 勉強します (べんきょうします) study
    持ってくる (もってくる) 持ってきます (もってきます) bring

    Group III verbs have no pattern in changing forms, and the only way to do so is to memorise their different forms. There are only two however.
    *Do note that the pronunciation of the verbs change.
     



    Verb stems are also important and are used in common expressions such as 食べたい (want to eat).

    Group I
    Dictionary Form Affirmative Form (Polite) Verb Stem
    買う (かう) 買います (かいます) 買い (かい)
    待つ (まつ) 待ちます (まちます) 待ち (まち)
    治る (なおる) 治ります (なおります) 治り (なおり)
    読む (よむ) 読みます (よみます) 読み (よみ)
    運ぶ (はこぶ) 運びます (はこびます) 運び (はこび)
    死ぬ (しぬ) 死にます (しにます) 死に (しに)
    書く (かく) 書きます (かきます) 書き (かき)
    泳ぐ (およぐ) 泳ぎます (およぎます) 泳ぎ (およぎ)
    話す (はなす) 話します (はなします) 話し (はなし)

    Group II
    Dictionary Form Affirmative Form (Polite) Verb Stem
    食べる (たべる) 食べます (たべます) 食べ (たべ)
    起きる (おきる) 起きます (おきます) 起き (おき)

    Group III
    Dictionary Form Affirmative Form (Polite) Verb Stem
    する します
    来る (くる) 来ます (きます) 来 (き)

    Regardless of what Group the verb is in, to extract the verb stem simply remove the ます from its Affirmative Form (Polite).


    Group I: 買う → 買います → 買い
    Group II: 食べる → 食べます → 食べ
    Group III: する → します → し


     



    The Negative Form of verbs imply the opposite of what the Dictionary Form of the verb means, that is:

    食べる (たべる): Eat
    食べない (たべない): Do/Does not eat

    Group I
    Using the same examples from the Dictionary Form tab,

    Dictionary Form Negative Form (Plain) Negative Form (Polite) Meaning
    買う (かう) 買わない (かわない) 買いません (かいません) don't buy
    待つ (まつ) 待たない (またない) 待ちません (まちません) don't wait
    治る (なおる) 治らない (なおらない) 治りません (なおりません) don't heal
    読む (よむ) 読まない (よまない) 読みません (よみません) don't read
    運ぶ (はこぶ) 運ばない (はこばない) 運びません (はこびません) don't carry
    死ぬ (しぬ) 死なない (しなない) 死にません (しにません) don't die
    書く (かく) 書かない (かかない) 書きません (かきません) don't write
    泳ぐ (およぐ) 泳がない (およがない) 泳ぎません (およぎません) don't swim
    話す (はなす) 話さない (はなさない) 話しません (はなしません) don't speak

    To transform Group I verbs to their Negative Form (Plain) from their Dictionary Form, replace the -u hiragana with the -a hiragana of the same column and add ない at the end.
    *Note that for verbs ending with う, the う is replaced by わ instead of あ: 買う → 買わない.
    *Also note that the Negative form for the verb ある is ない.

    読む → 読 + ま + ない → 読まない


    To transform Group I verbs to their Negative Form (Polite), replace the -u hiragana at the end of the verb with the -i hiragana of the same column and add ません to the end. Alternatively, replace the す at the end of the corresponding Affirmative Form (Polite) with せん.

    読む → 読 + み + ません → 読みません
    読みます → 読みま + せん → 読みません


    Group II
    Dictionary Form Negative Form (Plain) Negative Form (Polite) Meaning
    食べる (たべる) 食べない (たべない) 食べません (たべません) don't eat
    起きる (おきる) 起きない (おきない) 起きません (おきません) don't wake up

    Transforming a Group II verb to its Negative Form (Plain) is easier. Simply replace the る at the end of the verb with ない.

    食べる → 食べ + ない → 食べない


    Transforming a Group II verb to its Negative Form (Polite) is also similar. Replace the る at the end of its Dictionary Form with ません or replace the す at the end of its Affirmative Form (Polite) with せん.

    食べる → 食べ + ません → 食べません
    食べます → 食べま + せん → 食べません


    Group III
    Dictionary Form Negative Form (Plain) Negative Form (Polite) Meaning
    する しない しません don't do
    来る (くる) 来ない (こない) 来ません (きません) don't come
    勉強する (べんきょうする) 勉強しない (べんきょうしない) 勉強しません (べんきょうしません) don't study
    持ってくる (もってくる) 持ってこない (もってこない) 持ってきません (もってきません) don't bring

    *Again, do note the changes in pronunciation with the Group III verbs.

    -たい Form
    The -たい Form of verbs behave like i-adjectives. To change a -たい verb into its Negative Form, replace the い at the end with く and add ない to the back.

    食べたい → 食べた + く + ない → 食べたくない


     



    The Te-Form of verbs is an important form that can be used to modify or join verbs together, such as in 食べている or 食べてください.

    The Te-Form of the verb differs depending on the -u hiragana the verb ends with.

    Group I
    -u Hiragana Te-Form Dictionary Form Te-Form
    -う -って 買う (かう) 買って (かって)
    -つ -って 待つ (まつ) 待って (まって)
    -る -って 治る (なおる) 治って (なおって)
    -む -んで 読む (よむ) 読んで (よんで)
    -ぶ -んで 運ぶ (はこぶ) 運んで (はこんで)
    -ぬ -んで 死ぬ (しぬ) 死んで (しんで)
    -く -いて 書く (かく) 書いて (かいて)
    -ぐ -いで 泳ぐ (およぐ) 泳いで (およいで)
    -す -して 話す (はなす) 話して (はなして)

    To change a Group I verb from its Dictionary Form to its Te-Form, replace the -u hiragana at the end of the verb with its corresponding Te-Form.
    *The verb 行く is an exception. The Te-Form of 行く is instead 行って (and not 行いて).

    待つ → 待 + って → 待って


    Group II
    Dictionary Form Te-Form
    食べる (たべる) 食べて (たべて)
    起きる (おきる) 起きて (おきて)

    Similar to the Affirmative (Polite) and Negative (Polite) forms, to transform Group II verbs to their Te-Form replace the る at the end of the verb with て.

    食べる → 食べ + て → 食べて


    Group III
    Dictionary Form Te-Form
    する して
    来る (くる) 来て (きて)
    勉強する (べんきょうする) 勉強して (べんきょうして)
    持ってくる (もってくる) 持ってきて (もってきて)

    *Note the pronunciation changes.

    Negative Form/-たい Form
    If you have noticed, the Negative Form (Plain) and -たい form of verbs end with a い instead. These verb forms behave like an i-adjective (い形容詞). Regardless of Group, to change the Negative Form (Plain)/-たい Form of the verb to its Te-Form, replace the い at the end of the verb with くて.


    (Negative Form (Polite))
    Group I: 読まない → 読まな + くて → 読まなくて
    Group II: 食べない → 食べな + くて → 食べなくて
    Group III: しない → しな + くて → しなくて

    (-たい Form)
    Group I: 読みたい → 読みた + くて → 読みたくて
    Group II: 食べたい → 食べた + くて → 食べたくて
    Group III: したい → した + くて → したくて

     



    The Ta-Form of verbs is similar to the Te-Form of verbs in that it is simply the てchanged to た.
    (As such, I got lazy and just copied the contents of the Te-Form tab over)

    The Ta-Form of the verb differs depending on the -u hiragana the verb ends with.

    Group I
    -u Hiragana Ta-Form Dictionary Form Ta-Form
    -う -った 買う (かう) 買った (かった)
    -つ -った 待つ (まつ) 待った (まった)
    -る -った 治る (なおる) 治った (なおった)
    -む -んだ 読む (よむ) 読んだ (よんだ)
    -ぶ -んだ 運ぶ (はこぶ) 運んだ (はこんだ)
    -ぬ -んだ 死ぬ (しぬ) 死んだ (しんだ)
    -く -いた 書く (かく) 書いた (かいた)
    -ぐ -いだ 泳ぐ (およぐ) 泳いだ (およいだ)
    -す -した 話す (はなす) 話した (はなした)

    To change a Group I verb from its Dictionary Form to its Ta-Form, replace the -u hiragana at the end of the verb with its corresponding Ta-Form.
    *The verb 行く is an exception. The Ta-Form of 行く is instead 行った (and not 行いた).

    待つ → 待 + った → 待った


    Group II
    Dictionary Form Ta-Form
    食べる (たべる) 食べた (たべた)
    起きる (おきる) 起きた (おきた)

    Similar to the Affirmative (Polite) and Negative (Polite) forms, to transform Group II verbs to their Ta-Form replace the る at the end of the verb with た.

    食べる → 食べ + た → 食べた


    Group III
    Dictionary Form Ta-Form
    する した
    来る (くる) 来た (きた)
    勉強する (べんきょうする) 勉強した (べんきょうした)
    持ってくる (もってくる) 持ってきた (もってきた)

    *Note the pronunciation changes.

    Negative Form/-たい Form
    If you have noticed, the Negative Form (Plain) and -たい form of verbs end with a い instead. These verb forms behave like an i-adjective (い形容詞). Regardless of Group, to change the Negative Form (Plain)/-たい Form of the verb to its Ta-Form, replace the い at the end of the verb with かった.


    (Negative Form (Polite))
    Group I: 読まない → 読まな + かった → 読まなかった
    Group II: 食べない → 食べな + かった → 食べなかった
    Group III: しない → しな + かった → しなかった

    (-たい Form)
    Group I: 読みたい → 読みた + かった → 読みたかった
    Group II: 食べたい → 食べた + かった → 食べたかった
    Group III: したい → した + かった → したかった

     



    The Ba-Form of verbs suggests possibility, if. For example, 食べれば means "if (I/you) eat".

    Group I
    Dictionary Form Ba-Form Meaning
    買う (かう) 買えば (かえば) if (I) buy
    待つ (まつ) 待てば (まてば) if (I) wait
    治る (なおる) 治れば (なおれば) if (it) heals
    読む (よむ) 読めば (よめば) if (I) read
    運ぶ (はこぶ) 運べば (はこべば) if (I) carry
    死ぬ (しぬ) 死ねば (しねば) if (I) die
    書く (かく) 書けば (かけば) if (I) write
    泳ぐ (およぐ) 泳げば (およげば) if (I) swim
    話す (はなす) 話せば (はなせば) if (I) speak

    To transform Group I verbs to their Ba-Form from their Dictionary Form, replace the -u hiragana at the end of the verb's Dictionary Form with its corresponding -e hiragana of the same column and add ば at the end.

    書く → 書 + け + ば → 書けば


    Group II
    Dictionary Form Ba-Form Meaning
    食べる (たべる) 食べれば (たべれば) if (I) eat
    起きる (おきる) 起きれば (おきれば) if (I) wake up

    To change Group II verbs into their Ba-Form from the Dictionary Form, change the る at the end of the verb to れ and add a ば.

    食べる → 食べ + れ + ば → 食べれば


    Group III
    Dictionary Form Ba-Form Meaning
    する すれば if (I) do
    来る (くる) 来れば (くれば) if (I) come
    勉強する (べんきょうする) 勉強すれば (べんきょうすれば) if (I) study
    持ってくる (もってくる) 持ってくれば (もってくれば) if (I) bring

    Similar to Group II verbs, change the る to れば.
     



    I. Past Tense

    The past tense of Plain Form verbs is quite simply their Ta-Form. There isn't much use in re-listing the Ta-Forms of verbs so just check out that tab.
    Dictionary Form Affirmative Form (Past) Meaning Negative Form (Past) Meaning
    買う (かう) 買った (かった) bought 買わなかった (かわなかった) did not buy
    食べる (たべる) 食べた (たべた) ate 食べなかった (たべなかった) did not eat
    する した did しなかった did not
    食べたい (たべたい) 食べたかった (たべたかった) wanted to eat 食べたくなかった (たべたくなかった) did not want to eat

    However, it is a little different for the Polite form of verbs:
    Affirmative Form (Present) Affirmative Form (Past) Meaning Negative Form (Past) Meaning
    買います (かいます) 買いました (かいました) bought 買いませんでした (かいませんでした) did not buy
    食べます (たべます) 食べました (たべました) ate 食べませんでした (たべませんでした) did not eat
    します しました did しませんでした did not
    食べたいです (たべたいです) 食べたかったです (たべたかったです) wanted to eat 食べたくなかったです (たべたくなかったです) did not want to eat

    I did not include the Dictionary Form of the verbs in the above table because I feel it is easier to start with their Affirmative Forms (Polite).
    From the Affirmative Form (Present) the to Affirmative Form (Past), replace the す at the end with した.

    買います → 買いま + した → 買いました


    For the Negative Form (Past), replace the す at the end of the verb with せんでした. Or, as some might have noticed, add でした to the end of the Polite Negative Form of the verb.

    買います → 買いま + せんでした → 買いませんでした
    買いません → 買いません + でした → 買いませんでした


    Finally, the -たい form of verbs act like i-adjectives and are a little more complicated.
    Affirmative (Polite): Add です to the Ta-Form of the verb.

    食べたい → 食べたかった(Ta-Form) + です → 食べたかったです


    Negative (Polite): Add です to end of the Ta-form of the Negative Form of the verb.

    食べたい → 食べたくない(Negative Form) → 食べたくなかった(Ta-Form) + です → 食べたくなかったです
     



    Click for more:
    • Volitional Form (意志形)
    • Potential Form (可能形)
    • Passive Form (受身形)
    • Causative Form (使役形)
    • Passive Causative Form (使役受身形)
    • Transitive and Intransitive Verbs (他動詞・自動詞)
    • Respectable Form (敬語)

     



    Hiragana Table (From anndundon.com):



    *Note: The hiragana ki is き and sa さ in this font.

      Spoiler: UPDATE 01/06/2014: 
    I will no longer be including an English translation as meanings may change according to context and do not always remain the same. I will however still continue to provide simplified examples of when a verb form may be used.
    Last edited by pichu655889; June 1st, 2014 at 04:38 PM.
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    reality is but a dream ~dreamer~'s Avatar
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    Re: Grammar: Verbs (動詞)

    the only problem i see is the table from wikipedia
    entries -we and -wi are obsolete
    さ is 3 strokes, not 2
    き is 4 strokes, not 3

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    Re: Grammar: Verbs (動詞)

    If you are not already using it, use anki.

    @dreamer, you are correct, but strokes vary in cursive (not that it really matters). we and wi still rarely do get used, so it doesn't hurt to know them.
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    Re: Grammar: Verbs (動詞)

    memory is limited, you're better off learning something else then trying to memorize something that is not used (unless you try and read ancient books or something)

    A better hiragana table
    http://www.kkjn.jp/h1.htm

    katakana table
    http://www.kkjn.jp/k1.htm

    (i remember there was a site where it showed the stroke animation and the pronunciation. that was long ago though...)
    (i'll edit this if i find it)

    Resource for practicing hiragana and katakana
    Hiragana sheet
    http://happylilac.net/hiragana-50.html

    Katakana sheet
    http://happylilac.net/katakana-50.html

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    Re: Grammar: Verbs (動詞)

    Yes. It has been estimated that our memory may have a limit of around (as a relative estimation of quantity) 200TB of storage. I would hate to lose those few bytes worth.

    Just to note, people still use them in pop culture from time to time. You may know of a character "Tewi" from Touhou, as a matter of fact.
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    Re: Grammar: Verbs (動詞)

    learning those characters make as much sense as learning ancient english words when learning English. Yes, you might encounter them here and there, mostly in certain names and such, but don't realistically expect it to be used in newspapers or in the social media. really, you're just increasing the amount of stuff to learn with next to 0 benefit, so why bother..?

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    Re: Grammar: Verbs (動詞)

    Hmm I suppose. But if something takes such an insignificant amount of effort to learn, and may come in useful: why not?
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    Re: Grammar: Verbs (動詞)

    In writing さ is indeed written with 3 strokes and き with 4, but it seems that many fonts (at least those that I've seen) use those shown in the table. And as you said, ゐ and ゑ are not used anymore. I might make my own table in word :/
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    Re: Grammar: Verbs (動詞)

    Quote Originally Posted by pichu655889 View Post
    In writing さ is indeed written with 3 strokes and き with 4, but it seems that many fonts (at least those that I've seen) use those shown in the table. And as you said, ゐ and ゑ are not used anymore. I might make my own table in word :/
    Some people will write them connected just to write fast (like our cursive). But in learning making them with the proper strokes is good form, I suppose.
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    Re: Grammar: Verbs (動詞)

    There I've changed the table.

    It's just that I've seen people on the forums asking what the character さ (with 2 strokes) is.
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